12 August 1831
On this date in 1831...
George Gaines, the younger brother of General Edmund Gaines and a man the Choctaw trusted, was appointed Special Agent to supervise the removal of the Choctaw tribe to the west bank of the Mississippi River. Against Choctaw wishes, at that point the Army took custody of the Choctaw, herding them down the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory.
- 1806 - Frontiersman Davy Crockett married Polly Finley in Tennessee.
- 1840 - Comanche warriors and Texas Rangers collided at the Battle of Plum Creek, near the present-day of Lockhart, Texas.
- 1861- Confederate troops fought off an attack by Apache Indians in central Texas.
- 1863 - Federal troops began indiscriminate shelling of the city of Charleston, South Carolina and her harbor forts often using incendiary shells on the city.
- 1898 - The United States illegally annexed the Kingdom of Hawaii as a territory.
- 1960 - The first communications satellite, the balloon satellite Echo One was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
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